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Common Causes of Low Back Pain


person with low back pain holding low back

Back pain is a widespread issue that affects people of all ages and lifestyles. It can range from a mild discomfort to debilitating pain, impacting your daily activities and overall quality of life. In this blog post, we will explore the common causes of back pain and provide insights into finding relief. Let's dive into the world of back pain and discover ways to alleviate it.


spinal and pelvic anatomy of low back

Low Back Anatomy


To grasp the common causes of low back pain, it's important to become acquainted with the anatomy of the lumbar region. The lumbar spine, located in the lower back, consists of five vertebrae labeled as L1 to L5. These vertebrae are larger and sturdier compared to those in other parts of the spine, as they bear the weight and stress of the upper body.


Intervertebral discs, acting as cushions, are located between each lumbar vertebra, providing shock absorption and allowing for flexibility. Surrounding the vertebrae are ligaments and muscles that provide stability and support to the spine, enabling various movements and maintaining proper alignment.


The spinal cord, extending from the brain down to the lower back, runs through the spinal canal within the lumbar vertebrae. Nerves branching off the spinal cord exit through small openings in the sides of the vertebrae, called intervertebral foramina, and extend to different parts of the body, including the legs, feet, and organs.


Muscles in the lumbar region play a crucial role in supporting the spine and enabling movements. The deep muscles, such as the multifidus and transverse abdominis, provide stability, while the larger superficial muscles, such as the erector spinae and quadratus lumborum, facilitate movements like bending, twisting, and lifting.


Within the lumbar spine, there are also facet joints connecting adjacent vertebrae, allowing for smooth and controlled movements. These joints are lined with cartilage and surrounded by a capsule filled with synovial fluid, which helps reduce friction during motion.


Understanding the anatomy of your lumbar region can aid in comprehending the potential causes of low back pain. Whether it's due to muscle strain, disc herniation, spinal stenosis, or other underlying conditions, identifying the source of your pain is crucial in finding appropriate treatment.


Common Causes of Low Back Pain


1. Muscle Strain and Sprain

One of the leading causes of back pain is muscle strain or sprain. Poor lifting techniques, sudden movements, or overexertion can lead to the overstretching or tearing of muscles or ligaments in the back. This can result in localized pain or discomfort. If you recently engaged in activities that may have strained your back muscles, they could be contributing to your back pain.



2. Poor Posture and Sedentary Lifestyle

Spending long hours sitting or adopting poor posture can contribute to back pain. Slouching, hunching over a desk, or using improper ergonomics can strain the muscles and ligaments in your back. Maintaining good posture and incorporating regular movement and stretching breaks throughout the day can help alleviate and prevent back pain.



3. Herniated Disc

A herniated disc occurs when the soft cushion-like discs between the vertebrae in your spine become damaged or ruptured. This can lead to nerve compression and result in back pain, along with possible radiating pain, tingling, or numbness in the legs. If you experience persistent or worsening back pain with other neurological symptoms, a herniated disc may be the cause.


4. Spinal Arthritis

Arthritis can affect the joints in your spine, leading to chronic back pain. Osteoarthritis, the most common form, occurs due to wear and tear of the spinal joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease, can also cause inflammation and pain in the back. If you have a history of arthritis or experience persistent back pain, consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis.


5. Structural Abnormalities

Certain structural abnormalities in the spine, such as scoliosis (curvature of the spine), spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal), or spondylolisthesis (vertebral slippage), can contribute to back pain. These conditions may require specialized treatment approaches to manage symptoms and provide relief.


When to Seek Professional Help


While self-care measures can alleviate mild back pain, it's crucial to seek professional help if you experience persistent or severe pain, pain accompanied by other symptoms, or if the pain interferes with your daily life. Consulting with a physical therapist or healthcare provider specializing in back pain can help determine the underlying cause and develop an effective treatment plan.



Treatment Options


Treatment for back pain may include a combination of approaches, such as physical therapy exercises to improve strength and flexibility, manual therapy techniques, pain management strategies, postural correction, and lifestyle modifications. Your physical therapist will create a personalized treatment plan to address the root cause of your back pain and help you regain mobility and function.


Understanding the common causes of back pain empowers you to take an active role in managing your condition. If you're experiencing persistent or debilitating back pain, reach out to our team at Nashville Physical Therapy & Performance. We are dedicated to providing comprehensive care and tailored solutions to help you find relief from back pain and enhance your overall well-being.


References

- American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2021). Low Back Pain. Retrieved from https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/low-back-pain

- National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. (2020). Back Pain. Retrieved from https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/back-pain

- National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2020). Herniated Disk. Retrieved from https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Herniated-Disk

- Mayo Clinic. (2021). Back Pain. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/back-pain/symptoms-causes/syc-20369906

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